Understanding Polymorphism in Programming

Introduction to Polymorphism

Polymorphism, a central principle in object-oriented programming (OOP), endows programmers with the ability to treat objects of different classes as instances of a common superclass. The term “polymorphism” comes from Greek roots, meaning “many forms.” In the context of programming, it allows a single function or method to interact with different types of data. To better understand this concept, let’s draw parallels with a real-world analogy.

Imagine a scenario in a workplace, where different employees are asked to “complete a task.” The task itself is generic, but how each employee accomplishes it is specific to their job role:

  1. Generic Task: “Complete a task” is a common directive applicable to all employees.
  2. Specific Implementation:
    • developer might interpret it as writing code.
    • designer might see it as creating a new design.
    • An HR manager could understand it as recruiting a new team member.

Though the instruction is the same, the actual execution differs based on the employee’s role. This mirrors polymorphism in programming, where different objects might receive the same method call but respond to it in a way that’s appropriate to their class.

Application in Programming

Relating this to our previous Vehicle rental system example:

  • Common Interface: The calculate_rent method in the Vehicle class is like the “complete a task” directive. It’s a common interface for all vehicle types.
  • Unique Implementations:
    • Car calculates rent based on days and fuel consumption.
    • Truck considers days and load capacity.
    • Bicycle simply multiplies the number of days with a flat rate.

Each subclass implements calculate_rent in a way that’s relevant to its own context, just like different professionals complete the generic task according to their specific roles.

Simple Example: Animal Sounds

Consider a simple Python example to understand polymorphism:

class Animal:
    def makeSound(self):

class Dog(Animal):
    def makeSound(self):
        return "Woof Woof"

class Cat(Animal):
    def makeSound(self):
        return "Meow"

animals = [Dog(), Cat()]

for animal in animals:

Here’s what’s happening in this example:

  1. Base ClassAnimal is the base class with a method makeSound. This method is intended to be overridden in each subclass(For more example).
  2. SubclassesDog and Cat are subclasses of Animal. Each subclass has its own implementation of the makeSound method.
  3. Polymorphism in Action: We create a list, animals, containing instances of both Dog and Cat. When we loop through this list and call makeSound on each object, the specific implementation of makeSound for that object’s class is executed.

In this code, Animal is a base class with a method makeSound. Subclasses Dog and Cat override this method to provide their specific implementations. When we iterate over a list containing both Dog and Cat objects, each object’s makeSound method is called, demonstrating polymorphism. Despite different internal behaviors, each object is treated uniformly as an Animal.

Advanced Example: Vehicle Rental System

Polymorphism isn’t limited to such simple cases. Let’s examine a more complex scenario:

class Vehicle:
    def __init__(self, brand, model):
        self.brand = brand
        self.model = model

    def calculate_rent(self, days):
        raise NotImplementedError("This method must be implemented by subclasses.")

class Car(Vehicle):
    def __init__(self, brand, model, fuel_consumption):
        super().__init__(brand, model)
        self.fuel_consumption = fuel_consumption

    def calculate_rent(self, days):
        return 50 * days + 0.5 * self.fuel_consumption

class Truck(Vehicle):
    def __init__(self, brand, model, load_capacity):
        super().__init__(brand, model)
        self.load_capacity = load_capacity

    def calculate_rent(self, days):
        return 100 * days + 1 * self.load_capacity

class Bicycle(Vehicle):
    def __init__(self, brand, model):
        super().__init__(brand, model)

    def calculate_rent(self, days):
        return 20 * days

vehicle_list = [
    Car("Toyota", "Corolla", 7),
    Truck("Volvo", "FH16", 20),
    Bicycle("Trek", "Marlin")

for vehicle in vehicle_list:
    print(f"3-day rental fee for {vehicle.brand} {vehicle.model}: {vehicle.calculate_rent(3)}")
  1. Abstract Base ClassVehicle acts as an abstract base class. It defines a common interface calculate_rent which is intended to be implemented by its subclasses. This method is an example of an ‘abstract method’.
  2. Subclasses with Specific Implementations: The subclasses CarTruck, and Bicycle extend the Vehicle class. Each subclass provides its own specific implementation of the calculate_rent method.
  3. Polymorphic Behavior: When we iterate over the vehicle_list and invoke calculate_rent on each vehicle object, the respective implementation in each subclass is called. Although every vehicle calculates rent differently, from the perspective of the code iterating over the list, they’re all just Vehicle objects with a calculate_rent method.

Understanding the Depth of Polymorphism

This advanced example demonstrates a more sophisticated use of polymorphism:

  • Flexibility and Scalability: The system can easily be extended by adding new types of vehicles without altering the existing code structure. This demonstrates the scalability provided by polymorphism.
  • Code Reusability and Maintainability: Polymorphism allows the code to be written in a more generic way, making it more reusable and maintainable.
  • Abstraction of Complexities: The complex logic of how the rent is calculated for each vehicle type is abstracted away from the user of these classes. The user interacts with a uniform interface (calculate_rent), simplifying the interaction with diverse object types.


Polymorphism enhances flexibility and integration in software design. It allows for the implementation of abstract interfaces in multiple forms, simplifying complex systems by enabling a single interface to represent different underlying forms (classes). In both examples, polymorphism enabled treating different objects uniformly while preserving their unique behaviors, a fundamental aspect of effective object-oriented programming.

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